Date: Fri, 13 Feb 1998 19:53:48 +0100
Subject: Re: ke luar / keluar

> I have got an interesting question from my student. He asked 'why we
> sometimes write 'keluar (combining ke & luar), but sometimes 'ke luar'
> (separate them) for example 'ke luar negeri'?
Before the 1972 spelling reform, the prepositions di and ke were written as one with the word following it (dirumah "at home", kerumah "[to] home"). After that spelling reform, the rule is to write them separated (ke rumah, ke luar negeri). So one general source of confusion arises when a corpus of texts covers a range of dates of origin which straddles 1972. Apart from that, elder persons (myself included) sometimes automatically or absent-mindedly use the old rule, although they (we) consistently comply with the new rule when writing consciously (non-absentmindedly).

In the concrete example you are referring to, there is another source of confusion: there are two "ke_luar"s in Indonesian. One is the antonym of ke dalam, the other is the antonym of masuk (but etymologically, of course, they are cognate). Compare:

Ia menengok ke dalam rumah      ><   Ia menengok ke luar rumah
                                        "He/She glanced into/out of the house"

Ia menengok ke dalam            ><   Ia menengok ke luar
                                        "He/She glanced [to the] inside/outside"

Ia menengok masuk               ><   Ia menengok keluar
                                        "He/She glanced in/out"

Ia masuk rumah                  ><   Ia keluar rumah
                                        "He/She entered/left the house"

Ia memasukkan buku ke dalam tas ><   Ia mengeluarkan buku dari tas
                                        "He/She put/took out the book into/from 
                                                                         the bag".
As the two latter glosses show, keluar as antonym of masuk is the basic form (stem) of a verb with extensive paradigm of forms as well as derivatives: keluarkan, dikeluarkan, berkeluaran, keluaran, pengeluaran.
Note that keluaran is not ke-...-an + luar ("externalness"?)
                      but keluar + -an "graduate [of],
                                         published [by],
                                         originating [from]"

Note also e.g.  sekeluarnya dari rumah .....
                             "As soon as he/she left the house ....."

                keluar-masuk "go/walk in and out"

> And what is the part of speech of 'negeri'? Can we say it is adjective,
> eg. universitas negeri, pegawai negeri. But how about 'negeriku tercinta',
>     luar/dalam negeri? Is it also a noun?
Like the corresponding English country, it is a noun. As in English, the noun in Indonesian can serve as (non-possessive, qualitative) attribute, e.g. English country house, country road. In a 1993 publication, I argued that the noun performing nominal function and that performing the attributive function were actually two grammatically distinct forms just happening to be homonymous (like the gerund and the present participle of all English verbs). The noun in the nominal function exhibits a number of potential valencies, not shared by the same noun in the qualitative attributive function.

Sometimes negeri in qualitative attributive function translates as "government, state" (pegawai negeri "government employee = public servant").

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