Date: Sun, 25 Oct 1998 07:11:22 +1300
Subject: Re: BAHASA- Counting Problems
...the basic rules are essentially:
The plural form of the noun is used when (a) plurality is relevant and
not yet explicitly indicated by a numerical attribute (dua, banyak, beberapa)
and (b) in particular instances when beside plurality also variety
is relevant, or one wishes to somehow doubly stress the plurality.
Otherwise (i.e. simple plurality is irrelevant, or it is relevant but already
implicit from the attribution), the non-plural (non-reduplicated) form is
|rumah-rumah itu|| "||those houses", but |
|tiap-tiap rumah itu|| "||each of those houses"|
|setiap rumah|| "||each house"|
|beberapa rumah|| "||some houses"|
|sejumlah rumah|| "||a number of houses.|
|setiap rumah-rumah itu
|| "||each of those various houses,|
each of those many houses,"
|semua rumah-rumah|| "||all those many houses"|
These latter constructions occur more rarely (and more often in
spoken rather than in written speech) I think. I'm also not so sure
about how a strictly "baku" grammarian might see this....
Anyway, double reduplication (in the attribute as well as in the
noun) is usually avoided, i.e. tiap-tiap buku-buku "each of various
books" is somewhat "strained", though essentially I don't think it is
"non-grammatical" (again, this may not be quite "baku").
When reduplication in the noun is derivational (and not plural marker)
then there is no constraint on combination with plurality-implying
attributes of course, no matter whether reduplicated or not:
|tiap-tiap mata-mata|| "||each spy"|
|beberapa kodok-kodok|| "||some piston bellows"|
|sejumlah padi-padian|| "||a number of cereals".|
Hope that was any help.
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