Date: Wed, 18 Feb 1998 13:46:17 +0100
Subject: Re: signs and driving in Bhs Ind

>      (i) Apakah ada istilah dalam Bahasa Indonesia yang dapat dipadankan
> dengan kata Inggeris "sign" dalam arti "a written announcement, usually in
> big letters, displayed in a public place."  Bagaimana terjemahan kalimat
There doesn't seem to be one single word.
  papan "board" seems to be often used, also with clarifying attributes,
          e.g. p. pengumuman, p. iklan, particularly if it is relatively
          large, and either standing alone (e.g. on two posts) or brought
          onto a wall, and should obviously be of wood. Obviously also,
          any board not being a sign could also be a papan.
  tanda "sign, mark", also with attributes e.g. t. pengumuman,
          t. jalan, tanda lalulintas, is typically smaller than
          a papan, may be of any material, must not consist of or
          contain letters of any  size. Can also refer to immaterial
          "signs" (e.g. "that's a sign that it's hungry" itu satu
          tanda bahwa dia lapar).
  iklan "advertisement", includes advertisements in newspapers,
          and also "for sale" signs or announcements, and of course
          does not include road signs etc.
  petunjuk "advice, indication, sign, ..." may also refer to roadsigns
          that indicate the way (e.g. to some destination), also
          with attribute. p. jalan. May however also refer to verbal
          indication of how to get somewhere.
  rambu(h) "sign, post" (spelling with h seems to be more "baku" when
          there is a suffix added, but even the lexicologists seem to be
          undecided about the "correct" spelling),
          a post indicating border of land plot, also used to refer to
          trafic signs (this is not so very widespread in spoken language,
          and the translator of that Australian film subtitle ["Rambo"]
          must not necessarily have been a non-native Indonesian speaker).

> (ii) Celetuk saya yang kedua: apakah ada istilah umum yang dapat disamakan
> dengan kata Inggeris "to drive (a motor vehicle)"? Misalnya "Who's going to
> drive, me or you?" and "She's learning how to drive." dsb.  Apakah ada
> istilah yang lebih baku daripada nyetir, nyopir, pegang setir dsb.
> Bagaimana Bhs Indonesianya yang formal/baku?
menyetir and menyopir go a pretty long way even well into non-colloquial style, I think. Of the two aready mentioned:
  mengemudi(kan) "to drive/steer", berkemudi ("baku" style seems to
         prefer ber- to meN- when there is no -kan in this case),
         refers to the actual thing that the driver does. I.e.
         "learning to drive a car" is belajar mengemudikan mobil
         (or belajar membawa mobil see below).
         But one can also mengemudikan other steerable means of
         transport (boat, plane), i.e. anything that has a steering
         wheel or lever (kemudi).
  mengendarai "to drive/ride", does not necessarily imply sitting behind
         the steering wheel, e.g. "we all drove with his car to the Jones's"
         kami sama-sama mengendarai mobilnya ke rumah keluarga Jones.
         One can also mengendarai a horse or a horse-drawn carriage.
  membawa [mobil/kuda] "to drive/lead", when referring to a car drive,
         implies actual steering. But can also be used for riding a horse.

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